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Periander (died c. 587 BC), was the Second Tyrant of the Cypselid dynasty that ruled over Corinth. Periander’s rule brought about a prosperous time in Corinth’s history, as his administrative skill made Corinth one of the wealthiest city states in Greece. Several accounts state that Periander was a cruel and harsh ruler, but others claim that he was a fair and just king who worked to ensure that the distribution of wealth in Corinth was more or less even. He is often considered one of the Seven Sages of Greece, men of the 6th century BC who were renowned for centuries for their wisdom. (The other Sages were most often considered to be Thales, Solon, Cleobulus, Chilon, Bias, and Pittacus.)

Periander was the second tyrant of Corinth and the son of Cypselus, the founder of the Cypselid dynasty. Cypselus’ wife was named Cratea. There were rumors that she and her son Periander had an illicit affair. Periander married Lyside, daughter of Procles and Eristenea (whom he often referred to as Melissa). They had two sons: Cypselus, who was said to be weak-minded, and Lycophron, a man of intelligence. According to the book Lives of the Eminent Philosophers, Periander, in a fit of rage, kicked his wife or threw her down a set of stairs so hard that she was killed. Grief for his mother and anger at his father drove Lycophron to take refuge in Corcyra. When Periander was much older and looking to have his successor at his side, he sent for Lycophron. When the people of Corcyca heard of this, they killed Lycophron rather than let him depart. The death of his son caused Periander to fall into a despondency that eventually led to his death. Periander was succeeded by his nephew, Psammetichus, who ruled for just three years and was the last of the Cypselid tyrants...

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