Don Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco (1495 – July 21, 1552) was the first viceroy of New Spain, serving from April 17, 1535 to November 25, 1550, and the second viceroy of Peru, from September 23, 1551, to July 21, 1552.
Mendoza was born at Alcala la Real (Jaen, Spain), the son of the Second Conde de Tendilla, Inigo Lopez de Mendoza y Quinones and Francisca Pacheco. He was married to María Ana de Trujillo de Mendoza.
Mendoza became viceroy of New Spain in 1535 and governed for 15 years, longer than any subsequent viceroy. On his arrival in New Spain, he found a recently conquered territory beset with Indian unrest and rivalry among the Spanish conquerors and Spanish settlers. His difficult assignment was to govern in the king's name without making an enemy of Hernan Cortes. Cortes had expected to be made the permanent ruling crown official of New Spain, since he had led the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire. The Emperor Charles V (King Charles I of Spain) and the Council of the Indies judged Cortés too independent of crown authority to be made viceroy and had created a high court (audiencia) in New Spain in 1528, appointing Nuno de Guzman, a rival of Cortes as its president to counter Cortes's power. In 1530 Cortés was granted the title of the Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca with multiple encomiendas. With the arrival of Viceroy Mendoza in 1535, Cortes pursued his own economic interests from his palace in Cuernavaca...
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