Ali ibn Abi Talib (/ˈɑːli, ɑːˈliː/; Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب, translit. ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, Arabic pronunciation: [ʕaliː ɪbn ʔabiː t̪ˤaːlɪb]; 13 Rajab, 21 BH – 21 Ramaḍān, 40 AH; 15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, ruling over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661.
Born to Abu Talib and Fatima bint Asad, Ali was the only person born in the sacred sanctuary of the Kaaba in Mecca, the holiest place in Islam, as many sources, especially Shia ones say. Ali was the first young male who accepted Islam. After migrating to Medina, he married Muhammad's daughter Fatimah. Ali took part in the early caravan raids from Mecca and later in almost all the battles fought by the nascent Muslim community. He was appointed caliph by Muhammad's Companions (Sahaba) in 656, after caliph Uthman ibn Affan was assassinated. Ali's reign saw civil unrest and in 661, he was attacked while praying in the Great Mosque of Kufa, dying two days later.
Sunnis consider Ali the fourth and final of the Rashidun (rightly guided Caliphs), while Shias due to Muhammad's statements in Ghadir Khumm regard Ali as the first Imam after Muhammad, and consider him and his descendants the rightful successors to Muhammad, all of whom are members of the Ahl al-Bayt, the household of Muhammad. This disagreement split the Ummah (Muslim community) into the Sunni and Shi'i branches...
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